transliteration n : a transcription from one alphabet to another
EtymologyFrom transliteratus past participle of transliterare "to transliterate", from trans- "across" + littera "letter".
- Afrikaans: transliterasie
- Dutch: transliteratie
- French: transcription, translittération
- German: Transkription
- Greek: μεταγραφή
- Italian: traslitterazione
- Japanese: qualifier lexical translation 字訳, qualifier phonetical translation音訳
- Korean: 음역 (eumyeog)
- Latin: (Classical and Vulgar Latin) transcriptio , (Modern Latin) ttranslitteratio
- Norwegian: transliterasjon
- Portuguese: transcrição, transliteração
- Russian: транслитерирование
- Spanish: transcripción, transliteración
- Ukrainian: транслітерація
Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice.
From a linguistic point of view, transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another, word by word. Transliteration attempts to be exact, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. To achieve this objective, transliteration may define complex conventions for dealing with letters in a source script which do not correspond with letters in a goal script.
Transliteration is opposed to transcription, which specifically maps the sounds of one language to the best matching script of another language. Still, most systems of transliteration map the letters of the source script to letters pronounced similarly in the goal script, for some specific pair of source and goal language. If the relations between letters and sounds are similar in both languages, a transliteration may be (almost) the same as a transcription. In practice, there are also some mixed transliteration/transcription systems that transliterate a part of the original script and transcribe the rest. One instance of transliteration is the use of an English computer keyboard to type in a language that uses a different alphabet, such as Russian. Transliterated text, often used in emails, blogs, and electronic correspondence where non-Latin keyboards are unavailable, is sometimes referred to by special composite terms that demonstrate the combination of English characters and the original non-Latin word pronunciation: Ruglish, Hebrish, Greeklish, or Arabish. While the transcription implies seeking the best way to render foreign words into a particular language, the typing transliteration is a purely pragmatic process of inputting text in a particular language. The rest of the article concerns itself with the first meaning of the word, that is rendering foreign words into a different alphabet, transliteration in a narrow sense.
Also, transliteration should not be confused with translation, which involves a change in language while preserving meaning. Translation performs a mapping from one alphabet into another.
In a broader sense, the word transliteration is used to include both transliteration in the narrow sense and transcription. Anglicizing is a transcription method. Romanization encompasses several transliteration and transcription methods.
Difference between transliteration and transcriptionIn Modern Greek, the letters <η> <ι> <υ> and the letter combinations <ει> <oι> <υι> are all pronounced . A transcription consequently renders them all as <i>, but a transliteration still distinguishes them, for example by transliterating to <ē> <i> <y> and <ei> <oi> <yi>. (As the old Greek pronunciation of <η> was [ɛː], this proposal uses the character appropriate for an Old Greek transliteration or transcription <ē>, an <e> with a macron.) On the other hand, <ευ> is sometimes pronounced [ev] and sometimes [ef], depending on the following sound. A transcription distinguishes them, but this is no requirement for a transliteration.
UsesTransliterations in the narrow sense are used in situations where the original script is not available to write down a word in that script, while still high precision is required. For example, traditional or cheap typesetting with a small character set; editions of old texts in scripts not used any more (such as Linear B); some library catalogues.http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbdg0.htm#0.6
For example, the Greek language is written in the 24-letter Greek alphabet, which overlaps with, but differs from, the 26-letter version of the Roman alphabet in which English is written. Etymologies in English dictionaries often identify Greek words as ancestors of words used in English. Consequently, most such dictionaries transliterate the Greek words into Roman letters.
Transliteration in the broader sense is a necessary process when using words or concepts expressed in a language with a script other than one's own.
The idea of transliteration is complicated by the genuine use in multiple languages of different common nouns for the same person, place or thing. Thus, "Muhammad" is in common use now in English and "Mohammed" is less popular, though there are excellent reasons for each spelling (and similarly for "Muslim" and "Moslem") — in particular, the forms with "o" reflect modern pronunciation, while those with "u" reflect Classical Arabic.
Transliteration is also used for simple encryption.
Issues in transliterating particular languagesSome languages and scripts present particular difficulties to transcribers. These are discussed on separate pages.
- Ancient Near East
- Brahmic family
- Chinese language
- Greek language
- Japanese language
- Korean language
- Semitic languages
- Slavic languages written in the Cyrillic or Glagolitic alphabets
- Thai language
Free online transliteration services
- ICU Transform Demo Supports almost all scripts
- Online Devanagari Transliteration Devanagari, Gujarati, Kannada, Tamil, Bengali
- Quillpad Devanagari(Hindi, Marathi, Nepali), Gujarati, Bengali, Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Punjabi
- Google Indic Transliteration Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam. Also has spellchecker!
- Indian Language Converter বংলা (Bengali), हिन्दी (Hindi), ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada), മലയാളം (Malayalam), ଓଡ଼ିଆ (Oriya), ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ (Punjabi), संस्कृतम् (Sanskrit (Harvard-Kyoto scheme)), தமிழ் (Tamil), తెలుగు (Telugu), ગુજરાતી (Gujarati)
- Real-time Web based English to Tamil transliteration tool
- Girgit Online Indic to Indic Transliteration of Webpages বংলা (Bengali), हिन्दी (Hindi), ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada), മലയാളം (Malayalam), ଓଡ଼ିଆ (Oriya), ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ (Punjabi), தமிழ் (Tamil), తెలుగు (Telugu), ગુજરાતી (Gujarati), English
- Behnevis Transliteration Editor Farsi (Persian)
- Unicode Transliteration Guidelines
- ICU User Guide: Transforms International Components for Unicode transliteration services
- Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts - Collection of Transliteration Tables for many Non-Roman Scripts maintained by Thomas T. Pedersen.
- United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) - working group on Romanization Systems.
- Library of Congress: Romanization
- Transliteration history - history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets.
- Transliteration of Indic Scripts - How to use ISO 15919
- ICU Downloads International Components for Unicode
- Translit Online for Microsoft® Office Russian, Hebrew, Hindi, Greek, Arabic, Latin
- SIL International - Provides free fonts for transliteration and IPA
- Microsoft Transliteration Utility - A powerful, free tool for creating, debugging and using transliteration modules from any script to any other script.
- writeKA Scripto - Transliteration utility that works based on configurable transliteration maps. Maps can be devised for most languages.
- Dual screen English-Tamil transliteration software with reverse transliteration facility
transliteration in Breton: Treuzlizherennadur
transliteration in Chuvash: Транслитераци
transliteration in Czech: Transliterace
transliteration in Danish: Translitteration
transliteration in German: Transliteration
transliteration in Spanish: Transliteración
transliteration in Esperanto: Transliterumaj sistemoj
transliteration in Persian: نویسهگردانی
transliteration in French: Transcription et translittération
transliteration in Galician: Transliteración
transliteration in Korean: 전자법
transliteration in Hindi: लिप्यन्तरण
transliteration in Indonesian: Alihaksara
transliteration in Italian: Traslitterazione
transliteration in Hebrew: תעתיק
transliteration in Hungarian: Átírás (nyelvészet)
transliteration in Malayalam: വരമൊഴി സോഫ്റ്റ്വെയര്
transliteration in Dutch: Transliteratie
transliteration in Japanese: 翻字
transliteration in Norwegian: Transliterasjon
transliteration in Polish: Transliteracja
transliteration in Portuguese: Transliteração
transliteration in Romanian: Transliterare
transliteration in Russian: Транслитерация
transliteration in Slovak: Transliterácia
transliteration in Slovenian: Prečrkovanje
transliteration in Finnish: Translitterointi
transliteration in Swedish: Translitteration
transliteration in Tamil: எழுத்துப்பெயர்ப்பு
transliteration in Thai: การเขียนคำทับศัพท์
transliteration in Turkish: Transliterasyon
transliteration in Ukrainian: Транслітерація
transliteration in Urdu: کلمہ نویسی
transliteration in Chinese: 转写
amplification, bilingual text, clavis, crib, decipherment, decoding, epigraph, faithful translation, free translation, gloss, glossary, initialing, inscription, interlinear, interlinear translation, key, lettering, loose translation, metaphrase, paraphrase, pony, restatement, rewording, transcription, translation, trot